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PALEO-INDIAN POINTS Lanceolate Paleo-Indian Points When we think of the Paleo-Indian peoples that inhabited North America it is, perhaps, the lanceolate and fluted Clovis point that most frequently comes to mind as an icon of that culture (fig. 1) Although the Clovis point is generally accepted as the oldest identifiable form of the Native American stone bifaces, there are a number of other lanceolate forms that are also considered to be Paleo-Indian. Because these have not been excavated in any context to determine their proper antiquity the chronological placement of the Clovis point within this assemblage has not been unequivocally established. It is possible these other lanceolate biface forms are chronologically contemporary with Clovis, somewhat younger, or even older.
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As a group, their technical attributes are poorly defined; they may be heavily patinated, have ground basal and lateral edges in the haft area, have small basal flakes removed (as described by Wormington) as opposed to more pronounced flutes; they may have any or all of these characteristics. These non-conforming lanceolate forms may simply be examples of inferior knapping skills or expedient tools. Inability to accurately identify all of these lanceolate forms has dictated that in the South Carolina Paleo-Indian Point Data Base, some have been placed in an “unidentified” Paleo-Indian category (fig. Clovis Point “Fluted lanceolate points with parallel or slightly convex sides and concave bases.
They range in length from one and a half to five inches, but are usually some three inches or more in length and fairly heavy. The flutes sometimes extend almost the full length of the point but usually they extend no more than halfway from the base to the tip. Normally, one face will have a longer flute than the other.
The fluting was generally produced by the removal of multiple flakes. In most instances, the edges of the basal portion show evidence of smoothing by grinding.” “The Clovis point is often confused with the Folsom point because of the fluting on the face of the blade. at beginning.” The Clovis type is one of the early Paleo-Indian hunting points. In general, the Clovis point is larger, less skillfully made and the flutes are shorter. It has been assigned to the Llano complex by Sellards (1952) Distribution and Association The Clovis point has a wide distribution throughout North America. The base and the sides of the base have been ground as in the Folsom point, but the concave base is more shallow and the point tapered rather than rounded.” Age and Cultural Affiliation The Clovis type is known to be older than Folsom because of work done by the Texas Memorial Museum near Clovis, New Mexico (Sellards, 1952) Suhm and Krieger (1954) suggest an age “Somewhat greater than that of Folsom point, probably at least 10,000 B. Suhm and Krieger (1954) note the type from the borax Lake site in northern California and Naco site in southern Arizona across the United States to the Atlantic seaboard; a few specimens are from Alaska, Durango Mexico and Costa Rica. The Clovis point has been found in association with the extinct mammoth at several localities: Angus Nebraska; Dent Colorado; the Miami and Mc Lean sites in Texas; Clovis New Mexico, and the Naco and Lehner sites in Arizona (Wormington 1957) The vast majority of Clovis points, however, have been found on the surface, unassociated with cultural or faunal remains. Some South Carolina fluted points made of various lithic materials: A, unidentified chert; B, unidentified chert or jasper; C & J, coastal plain chert, stained black by river; D, ridge and valley-like chert; E & G, coastal plain chert; F, rhyolite; H, flow-banded rhyolite; I, unidentified chert; K, milky quartz; L, Orthoquartzite; M, crystal quartz; N, white quartz.
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Examples of Clovis Point Dimensions Measurements from 59 examples from 44 sites in the Tennessee River Valley (Soday and Cambron, n.d). Length: 35 – 154 mm average – 66 mm Width: average – 27 mm Thickness: average – 07 mm From 14 examples of “fine Clovis” from 13 sites: Length: 29 mm – 109 mm Texas examples (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954): Length: 69 mm – 140 mm Width: 20 mm – 40 mm The range of 66 examples from New York State (Ritchie, 1961): Length: 25mm – 127 mm Thickness: 3 mm – 10 mm Unfluted Clovis? Suhm, Krieger and Jelks suggest the possibility that some Clovis points have no flutes, and that it would be difficult to distinguish these examples from Plainview points.
Concerning the fluting on some of the Clovis points at the Naco, Arizona Site, Wormington (1957) says; “In some instances the grooves had been formed by the removal of several smaller flakes.” At least one illustrated example appears to be only basally thinned. The Naco find dates between 10,000 and 11,000 years ago. It is suggested that this type may be contemporaneous with Clovis or may have appeared later.
(Unfluted lanceolate points believed to be Paleo-Indian are found throughout South Carolina. Their size, form and the lithic materials from which they are made are highly variable. Grinding along the basal edge for about one-third of the length of the point designates the hafting area.
The lateral and basal edges usually exhibit, but not always, evidence of smoothing. Various unfluted lanceolate points and the lithic materials from which they are made: A, B, D, G, J, coastal plain chert; E, quartzite; F, L, N, white quartz; M, translucent quartz; H, I, K, rhyolite; C, unidentified metavolcanic. The auriculated base is parallel-rounded, incurvate, and may show multiple flutes on one or both faces. Most have small thinning flakes removed from the base, but lack well defined fluting and, or, forms that distinguishes them as a specific point type [fig. The basal edge is thinned on each side of the flute and ground.” “The flakes removed in order to shape the blade and hafting area are narrow, shallow and random. The edges were finished by the removal of alternate flakes along the blade and hafting area edges, leaving a fine, irregular pattern.
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The short flute was removed first from a flattened face, the longer flute from a median ridged face that shows multiple flute scars (Cambron and Hulse, 1961).” “The type was named after Redstone Arsenal in Madison County, Alabama.” (Redstone points exhibit the uniformly finest craftsmanship of any of the South Carolina Paleo-Indian points [fig. Numerically they are fewer than the typical Clovis by an estimated ratio of about 1 to 3. Their accurate placement within the Paleo-Indian point chronology has not been firmly established). Redstone points: A, B, E, F, G, H, I, J, coastal plain chert; C, vitric tuff; D, differentially crystallized tuff. Simpson-Like Points “A wide bladed, relatively narrow waisted, fairly thin, concave based, medium to large sized point with grinding on bottom and waisted edges. Basal ears are present but are not as developed as in the Suwannee point. Basal thinning is present but, also, is not well developed. Workmanship is good to fair.” “Points of this shape, if well fluted, could be called Cumberland. Simpson points differ from Suwannee points because of their extreme waisted appearance and lack of developed ears.” (Simpson-like points are occasionally found in South Carolina. Simpson points are known from as far south as Charlotte Harbor [west coast of Florida]. They are usually found on the southwestern coastal plain and made of coastal plain chert.
However, several outstanding specimens have been found that were made of high quality metavolcanic stone [fig. 4; C], perhaps indicating a more northern distribution for the type than has been previously thought, or, the similarity could be fortuitous). Waisted base lanceolate points similar to the Simpson point.